The Dry Martini is a cocktail, the original of which is usually said to have been invented in 18th-century London, England. There are many cocktails that are claimed as the ancestor of the martini. The first printed reference to a drink being called a "martini" was from 1850, in an Italian language publication from Turin about the American barman Jerry Thomas. Claims have been made for drinks as varied as:
- A cocktail called "Martino" (said to date from before 1788 and to be related to dry vermouth),
- A "Gin Cocktail", served in New York City by Philip Downing around 1874 and later known as a Martinez.